Hydraulic Fracturing Fundamentals

Learn more Date of Training
11 Feb 2019

Course overview

This course will provide theoretical and practical understanding of hydraulic fracturing techniques and their application in different environments. Detailed lectures will be conducted on fracturing concepts that are industry recognized, covering aspects of fracturing design, application and analysis as well as the strengths and weakness of the various approaches to fracturing.

The course is designed for

Production, operations, completions engineers, and supervisors, who are or will be actively involved in hydraulic fracturing design, application and analysis, and desire a more in-depth understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects. Attendees do not require previous fracturing knowledge, or Hydraulic Fracturing experience.

Learning objectives

Upon completion of the course, the participant will:

  • Acquire knowledge to identify stimulation candidates
  • Understand basic analysis of design, planning and execution of frac treatments
  • Understand the aspects involved in the design of a frac treatment
  • Be able to plan and supervise a frac treatment in general terms
  • Understand post-frac analysis and evaluation basics.

The course is based on the basic concepts applicable to conventional fracturing as well as a review of practices in unconventional formation environments using innovative frac and completion techniques. As such, the use of powerful and unique features will be learned:

  • Candidate selection and screening
  • Optimizing designs for formation types
  • Effective placement, packing of the fracture with proppant, also known as TSO design and placement
  • Safe placement of the completion (avoiding unplanned job terminations: screenouts or planning TSO when desired)
  • Real-time, on-location, Minifrac and Mainfrac analysis
  • Mainfrac Treatment analysis and evaluation
  • Pre and post frac QA-QC

The above is accomplished by focusing on resolving the major issues in Propped fracturing Stimulation:

  • Can the treatment be placed safely and effectively to completion?
  • Was the placement effective? (Is the proppant opposite and along the payzone?)
  • Is rock stimulated area achieved in unconventional environment such as shale rocks

Emerging advanced technologies

Over the last decade, the field of hydraulic fracturing has experienced tremendous technological development, which is slowly implemented in field operations. Some developments to be covered are listed in new practices / technologies in multistage environment in the outline below.

Actual case studies

To reinforce the learning experience and gain confidence in the application of the technology, actual case studies from around the world, will be demonstrated in the classroom.

Course outline

Well stimulation basics

Restoring flow capacity
Creating new flow capacity

Objectives - why fracturing

Adding value - Basic economics
Formation damage

Types of stimulation
Restoring matrix
Bypassing damage
Creating rock contact

Stimulation techniques - frac generations
Passing wellbore damage
Massive frac treatments – low perm environment
TSO - Frac and pack
Multiple frac environments

Frac design and evaluation
Improving productivity
Interconnecting formation permeability
Improving ultimate recovery
Secondary recovery

Candidate recognition and optimization
Stimulation Objectives and Types
Stimulation Candidates

High vs low perm fracturing

Minifrac – Mini fall off
G function, pressure decline analysis
Leak off coefficient, fluid efficiency
Effective wellbore radius

Rock mechanics
Orientations, stresses, Hardness, Permeability
Zone Height; Presence of Barriers, Drainage Radius
Rock mechanical behaviour
Frac width

Modelling-propagation models

Conventional fracturing fluids

Base fluid requirements
Viscosity, friction, fluid loss
Impact of Volume, Pump Rate
Effect of temperature, share, crosslinking rates

Types of frac fluids;
Water based fluids; PSG, HPG, CMHPG, HEC, CMHEC, Xantam
Crosslinking systems; Borate crosslinker, Organometallic crosslinkers:
Oil based multiphase/emulsions, foam fluids, applications, benefits
Non-polymeric frac fluid technology
Visco-elastic surfactants
Linear, cross linked fluids 
Chemicals; polymers, xlinkers, stabilizers-iron, clays, scale-, activators, breakers, delays agents

Mixing systems
Batch mixing Continuous -on-the-fly- mixing systems Proppants Proppant selection Types, comparison Issues on transport; settling rates and velocity Conductivity damage

Proppant selection
Types, comparison
Issues on transport; settling rates and velocity

Conductivity damage

Final proppant pack polymer concentration - PCF
Retained conductivity 
Flow capacity areas, skin, pseudo skin
Wellbore, critical matrix
Type of damage
Scales, organic deposits, silts and clays, emulsion, water blocking, wettability changes

Fracturing optimization
Reservoir deliverability
Production systems
Pumping parameters
Fracturing fluid and proppant
Treatment size
Economic benefit

Acid fracturing
Bottom-hole pressures above pressures
Acid reaction with formation rock
Frac etching
Formation integrity

Fracturing economics 
Costs vs production gains
Post treatment decline
Impact on treatment values; optimum frac length, width, perm
Well performance
Future value of money

Fracturing execution
Equipment size, type, location limitations 
Design, and validation through MiniFRAC analysis
Calibration treatments
Real time data acquisition
Onsite QA/QC

Design and analysis of diagnostic injections - Fluid efficiency, fracture entry friction 

Fracture modelling

Pressure matching

Current and new practices
Re-fracturing, benefits, applications, constraints

Unconventional reservoirs- shale environment
Stimulation Multi-stage horizontal well applications
Description of multistage completion types
Extended reach applications

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Date of Training

11 Feb 2019

Hydraulic FracturingFrackingWell Stimulation

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