- Under the new sanctions, Venezuela can only sell crude to the USA or using US dollars through offshore companies until April 28, 2019.
- The US is the main demand centre for Venezuela's heavy crudes; despite investment from Russia and China, the loss of American demand will be a major blow to PDVSA.
- It presents a conundrum for Citgo, whose refineries along the US Gulf Coast depend almost entirely on Venezuelan crude as a processing fuel.
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